Evaluation of Application Methods of Plant Growth Promoting Fungi (PGPF) on Plant Attributes of Wheat

Azher Hameed AL-TAIE, Noor Khadhum AL-ZUBAIDI, Arshad JAVAID


The present study was carried out to evaluate application methods of plant growth promoting fungi (PGPF) namely Aspergillus niger AD1 and Trichoderma hamatum T-113, on growth and yield of wheat var. Ibaa99 both in pots and under field conditions. Application methods included PGPF loaded with peatmos then used it at a rate of 100, 150, and 200 mL pot-1 or m-2 in filed soil; seed treatment (coating) with PGPF suspension 19×107, soil treatment and combination of all the three methods. Wheat was sown in pots and field plots during 2016-2017 growing season and data regarding various growth and yield attributes were recorded.  According to the results in both pot and field trials, it was concluded that the best treatments for the highest plant growth and yield attributes were peatmos 150 mL alone or in combination with soil and seed treatments.  The soil physiochemical parameters were also improved after inoculation with PGPF in different methods of application compared with un-inoculated control treatment in both pot and field conditions.


Application methods, PGPF, Wheat, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma hamatumAkhtar, R. , Javaid, A. (2018). Biological management of basal rot of onion by Trichoderma harzianum and Withania somnifera. Planta Daninha 36: e017170507. Albareda, M., Rodríguez-Na


Akhtar, R. , Javaid, A. (2018). Biological management of basal rot of onion by Trichoderma harzianum and Withania somnifera. Planta Daninha 36: e017170507.

Albareda, M., Rodríguez-Navarro, D.N. , Camacho, M. (2008). Alternatives to peat as a carrier for rhizobia inoculants: Solid and liquid formulations. Soil Biology Biochemistry 40:2771-2779.

Al-Taie, A. H., Matrood, A.A. , Al-Asadyi, M. (2016). The Influence of some Fungi Bio-genic on promoting Growth and yield of wheat-var. Ibaa99. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Apply Science, 5(11):757-764.

Alyounis, A.A. (1993). Field crops improving and production. Dar Alkottob for publishing Baghdad.

AMER, G. A. , Utkede, R. S., (2000). Development of formulation of biological agents for management of root rot of lettuce and cucumber. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 46: 809-816.

Bhandari, G., P. Zomer, K. Atreya, H.G. J. Mol, V. Geissen (2019). Pesticide residues in Nepalese vegetables and potential health risks. Environmental Research, 172: 511-521.

Bray, R.H. , Kurtz, L.T. (1945) Determination of Total Organic and Available Forms of Phosphorus in Soils. Soil Science, 59, 39-45.

Chandanie, W. A., Kubota, M. , Hyakumachi, M. (2006). Introduction between plant growth promoting fungi and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae and induction of systemic resistance to anthracnose disease in cucumber. Plant Soil., 286 (1-2): 209-217.

Firew Elias, F., Woyessa, D., , Muleta, M. (2016) Phosphate Solubilization Potential of Rhizosphere Fungi Isolated from Plants in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. International Journal of Microbiology. Volume 2016, Article ID 5472601.

Gupta, G., Parihar, S.S., Ahirwar, N.K., Snehi, S.K. , Singh, V. (2015) Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR): Current and Future Prospects for Development of Sustainable Agriculture. Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology 7: 96-102.

Hossain M.M., Sultana F., Islam S. (2017) Plant Growth-Promoting Fungi (PGPF): Phytostimulation and Induced Systemic Resistance. In: Singh D., Singh H., Prabha R. (eds) Plant-Microbe Interactions in Agro-Ecological Perspectives. Springer, Singapore.

Javaid A, Afzal L, Shoaib A (2017). Biological control of charcoal rot of mungbean by Trichoderma harzianum and shoot dry biomass of Sisymbrium irio. Planta Daninha 35: e017165756.

Javaid A, Afzal R. Shoaib A, (2019). Biological management of southern blight of chili by Penicillium oxalicum and leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 22: Accepted.

Keswani, C., Mishra, S., Sarma, B.K., Singh, S.P. , Singh, H.B. (2014). Unraveling the efficient applications of secondary metabolites of various Trichoderma spp.. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 98: 533-544.

Kumar, S., Thakur, M., , Rani, A.(2014). Trichoderma: Mass production, formulation, quality control, delivery and its scope in commercialization in India for the management of plant diseases. African Journal of Agricultural Research.Vol. 9(53), pp. 3838-3852.

Lucy, M., Reed, E. , Glick, B. R. (2004). Applications of free living plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Antonie Vanleeuwen hoek, 86(1): 11-25.

Malus, E. A., Sas-Paszt, L. , Ciesielska, J. (2012) Technologies for Beneficial Microorganisms Inocula Used as Biofertilizers. The Scientific World Journal Volume 2012, Article ID 491206, 12 pages

Malviya, J., Kiran S. , Vaibhavi J. (2011) Effect of Phosphate Solubilizing Fungi on Growth and Nutrient Uptake of Ground nut (Arachis hypogaea) Plants Advances Bioresearch. Vol 2 [2]

Murphy, J. F., Zehnder, G. W., Schuster, D. J., Sikora, J. E., Polston N. , Kloepper, J. W. (2000). Plant growth promoting rhizobacterial mediated protection in tomato against tomato mottle virus. Plant Disease, 84: 779-784.

Nandakumar, R., Babu, S., Viswanathan, R., Sheela, J., Raghuchander, T. , Samiyappan, R., (2001). A new bioformulation of containing plant growth promoting rhizobacterial mixture for the management of Sheath blight and enhanced grain yield in rice. Biocontrol, 46: 493-510.

Pal,S., Singh, H. B., Farooqui, A. , Rakshit, A. (2015). Fungal biofertilizers in Indian agriculture: perception, demand and promotion. Journal of Eco-friendly Agriculture 10(2): 101-113

Pandya, N. D. , Desai, P. V., Jadhav, H. P., Sayyed, R. Z.(2018) Plant growth promoting potential of Aspergillus sp. NPF7, isolated from wheat rhizosphere in South Gujarat, India. Environmental Sustainability, 1, Issue 3, pp 245–252

Sahlemedhin, S., , Taye, B. (2000). Procedures for Soil and Plant Analysis. National Soil Research Center,EARO, Technical Paper No. 74, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Sarma, B.K., Yadav, S.K., Patel, J.S. and Singh, H.B. (2014). Molecular mechanisms of interactions of Trichoderma with other fungal species. Open Mycology Journal, 8: 140-147.

Singh, H. B., Sarma, B. K. , Keswani, C.(2017).Advanced in PGPR research.CAB International, UK.

Toajn, A.M. (1979). Ecology of green houses. University of Basrah press. 571-573.

Vasudevan, P., Reddy, M. S., Kavitha, S., Velusamy, P., Paulraj, R. S., Puroshothaman, S. M., Brinda, P. V., Bharathi, K. S., Kloepper,J, W. , Gnanamanickam, S.S.(2002). Role of biological preparations in enhancement of rice seedling growth and grain yield. Current Science, 83: 1140-1144.

Vidhyasekaran, P. , Muthamilan, M,. (1999). Development of formulations of Pseudomonas fluorescens for control of chickpea for control of wilt. Plant Diseases, 79: 782-786.

Yadav, S. k., Singh, Singh, S., Singh, H.B. , Sarma, B. K. (2017) Compatible Rhizosphere-Competent Microbial Consortium Adds Value to the Nutritional Quality in Edible Parts of Chickpea. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 65, 6122−6130.

Zhang, F., Xu, X., Huo, Y. , Xiao, Y. (2019) Trichoderma-Inoculation and Mowing Synergistically Altered Soil Available Nutrients, Rhizosphere Chemical Compounds and Soil Microbial Community, Potentially Driving Alfalfa Growth. Frontiers Microbiology. 9:3241. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.03241.


  • There are currently no refbacks.